|Name:||Julius Henry Marx|
|Born:||October 2, 1890|
|Died:||August 19, 1977|
|Place of death:||Los Angeles, California, U.S.|
|Occupation:||comedian, game show host|
|Known for:||being a comedian and hosting You Bet Your Life|
In a 1950 radio episode of You Bet Your Life, Groucho stated that he was born in a room above a butcher's shop on 78th Street in New York City.
The Marx children grew up on East 93rd Street off Lexington Avenue in a neighborhood now known as Carnegie Hill on the Upper East Side of the boroughs of Manhattan, in New York City. The turn-of the-century building that Harpo called "the first real home they ever knew" (in his memoir Harpo Speaks) was populated with European immigrants, mostly artisans. Just across the street were the oldest brownstone in the area, owned by people such as the well-connected Loew Brothers and William Oath.
The Marx family was Jewish. Groucho's mother was Miene "Minnie" Schoenberg, whose family came from Dornum in northern Germany when she was 16 years old. His father was Simon "Sam" Marx who changed his name from Marrix, and was called "Frenchie" throughout his life because he and his family came from Alsace-Lorraine. Minnie's brother was Al Schoeberg, who shortened his name to Al Shean when he went into show business as half of Gallagher and Shean, a noted vaudeville act of the early 20th century. According to Groucho, when Shean visited he would throw the local waifs a few coins so that when he knocked at the door, he would be surrounded by adoring fans. Marx and his brothers respected his opinions and asked him on several occasions to write some material for them.
Minnie Marx did not have an entertainment industry career, but had intense ambition for her sons to go on stage like their uncle. While pushing her career eldest son (Chico Marx) in piano lessons, she found that Julius had a pleasant soprano voice and the ability to remain on key. Even though Julius's early career goal was to be a doctor, the family's need for income forced Julius out of school at the age of twelve. By that time, Julius had become a voracious reader, particularly fond of Horatio Algar. Throughout the rest of his life, Marx would overcome his lack of formal education by becoming a very well-read.
After a few unsuccessful stabs at entry-level office work and other jobs suitable for adolescents. Julius took to the stage as a boy singer in 1905. Though he reputedly claimed that as a vaudevillian he was "hopelessly average" it was merely a wisecrack. By 1909, Minnie Marx successfully in Nacogdoches, Texas, Julius, Milton and Arthur began cracking jokes onstage for their own amusement. Much to their surprise, the audience liked them better as comedians than as singers. They modified the then-popular Gus Edwards comedy skit "School Days" and renamed it "Fun In Hi Skule". The Marx Brothers would perform variations on this routine for the next several years.
For a time in vaudeville all the brothers performed using ethnic accents. Leonard, the oldest, developed an Italian accent he used as Chico Marx to convince some roving bullies that he was Italian, not Jewish. Arthur, the next oldest, donned a curly red wig and became "Patsy Brannigan", a stereotypical Irish character. His dsicomfort speaking on stage led to his uncle Al Shean's suggestion that he stopped speaking altogether and play the role in mime. Julius Marx's character from "Fun In Hi Skule" was an ethnic German, so Julius played him with a German accent. After the sinking of the RMS Lustiania in 1915, public anti-German sentiment was widespread, and Marx's German character was booed, so he quickly dropped the accent and developed the fast-talking, wise-guy character that became his trademark.
The Marx Brothers became the biggest comedy stars at The Palace Theatre, which billed itself as the "Valhalla of Vaudeville" Brother Chico's deal-making skills resulted in three hit plays on Broadway. No comedy routine had ever infected the Broadway circuit.
All of this predated their Hollywood career. By the time the Marxes made their first movie, they were major stars with sharply honed skills, and when Groucho was relaunched to stardom on You Bet Your Life, he had already been performing successfully for a half a century.
Groucho Marx made 26 movies, 13 of them with his brothers with his brothers Chico and Harpo. Marx developed a routine as a wise-cracking hustler with a distinctive chicken-walking lope, an exaggerated greasepaint mustache and eyebrows, and a ever-present cigar, improvising insults to stuffy dowagers (often played by Margaret Dumont) and anyone else who stood in his way. As the Marx Brothers, he and his brothers starred in a series of popular stage shows and movies.
Their first movie was a silent film made in 1921 that was never released, and is to believe to have been destroyed at the time. A decade later, the team made some of their Broadway hits into movies, including The Cocoanuts and Animal Crackers. Other successful films were Monkey Business, Horse Feathers, Duck Soup and A Night at the Opera. One quip from Marx concerned his response to Sam Wood, the director of A Night at the Opera. Furious with The Marx Brothers ad-libs and antics on the set, Woo yelled in disgust: "You can't make an actor out of clay". Groucho responded, "Not a director out of Wood".
Marx worked as a radio comedian and show host. One of his earliest stints was in a short-lived series in 1932, Flywheel, Shyster, and Flywheel, co-starring Chico. Most of the script and discs were though to have been destroyed, but all but one of the scripts were found in 1988 in the Library of Congress.
In 1947, Marx was chosen to host a radio quiz program, You Bet Your Life, broadcast by ABC and then CBS, before moving over to NBC radio and television in 1950. Filmed before a live audience, the television show consisted of Marx interviewing contestants and ad-libbing jokes, before playing a brief quiz. The show was responsible for the phrases "Say the secret word [insert word] and divide $100" (that is, each contestant would get $50); and Who's buried in Grant's Tomb? or "What color is The White House?" (asked when Marx felt sorry for a contestant who had not won anything). It ran for eleven years on television.
Groucho was the subject of an urban legend about a supposed response to a contestant who had nine children which supposedly brought down the house. In response, Marx asking in disbelief why she had so many children, the contestant replied, " I love my husband." To this, Marx responded, "I love my cigar, too, but I take it out of my mouth once in a while." Groucho often asserted in interviews that this exchange never took place, but it remains one of the most often quoted "Groucho-isms" nonetheless.
Throughout his career he introduced a number of memorable songs in films, "Hooray for Captain Spaulding" and "Hello, I Must Be Going", in Animal Crackers, "Whatever it is, I'm Against It", "Everyone Says I Love You" and "Lydia the Tattooed Lady". Frank Sinatra, who once quipped that the only thing he could do better than Marx was sing, made a film with Marx and Jane Russell in 1951 entitled Double Dynamite.
Mustache, eyebrows and walkEdit
In public and off-camera, Harpo and Chico were difficult to recognize by their fans without their wigs and costumes, but it was almost impossible to recognize Groucho without his trademark eye-glasses, fake eyebrows and mustache.
The greasepaint mustache and eyebrows originated spontaneously prior to a vaudeville performance in the early 1920s when he did not have time to apply the pasted-on mustache he had been using (or, according to his autobiography, simply did not enjoy the removal of the mustache every night because of the effects of tearing the bandage off the same patch of skin every night). After applying the greasepaint mustache a quick glance in the mirror revealed his natural hair eyebrows were too undertoned and did not match the rest of his face, so Marx added the greasepaint to his eyebrows and headed for the stage. The absurdity of the greasepaint was never discussed on-screen, but in a famous scene in Duck Soup where both Chicolini (Chico) and Pinky (Harpo) disguise themselves as Groucho, they are briefly seen applying the greasepaint, implicitly answring any question a viewer might have about where he got his mustache and eyebrows.
Marx was asked to apply the greasepaint mustache once more for You Bet Your Life when it came to television, but he refused, opting to grow instead a real one, which he wore for the rest of his life. By the time, his eyesight had weakened.enough for him to actually wear contact lenses; before then, his eye-glasses had been merely a stage prop. He debuted this new, and now much-older, apperance in Love Happy, the last Marx Brother's last film as a comedy team.
he did paint the old character mustache over his real one on a few rare performing occasions, including a TV sketch with Jackie Gleason on the latter's variety show in the 1960s (in which they performed a variation of the song "Mister Gallagher and Mister Sheen", co-written by Marx's uncle Al Shean) and the 1968 Otto Preminger film Skidoo. In his late 70s at the time, Marx remarked on his appearance: "I looked like I was embalmed." He played a mob boss called "God" and. according to Marx, "both my performances and the film were God-awful!"
The exaggerated walk with one hand on the small of his back and his torso bent almost 90 degrees at the waist was a parody of a fad from the 1880s and 1890s. Fashionable young men of the upper classes would affect a walk with their right hand held fast to the base of their spines, and with a slight lean forward at the waist and a very slight twist towards the right with the left shoulder, allowing the left hand to swing free with the gait. (Edmund Morris, in his biography The Rise of Theodore Rooservelt, describes a young Rooservelt,newly elected to the State Assembly, walking into the House Chambers for the first time in this trend, affected gait, somewhat to the amusement of the older and more rural members. Groucho exaggerated this fad to a marked degree, and the comedy effect was enhanced by how out of date this fashion was by the 1940s and 1950s.
Groucho glasses, also known as the beaglepuss, are a humorous novelty disguise that caricature comedian Groucho Marx. They typically consist of blackhorn-rimmed glasses with attached eyebrows, large plastic nose, bushy Mustache and occasionally with an attached plastic cigar. Considered one of the most iconic and widely used of all the novelty items, Groucho glasses were first marketed in the early 1940s and are instantly recognizable to people throughout the world. Groucho glasses today are often used as a shorthand for slapstick.
Groucho's three marriages all ended in divorce. His first wife was chorus girl Ruth Johnson. He was 20 while she was 19 at the time of their wedding. The couple had two children. Arthur Marx and Miriam Marx. His second wife was Key Mavis (m. 1945-1951), nee Catherine Ditting. former wife of Leo Gorcey. Groucho was 54 and Kay 21 at the time of theri marriage. They had a daughter, Melinda Marx. His third and final wife was actress Eden Hartford. She was 24 when she married the 63 year old Groucho.
During the Early 1950s, Groucho described his perfect woman: "Someone who looks like Marilyn Monroe and talks like George S. Kaufman.
Often when the Marxes arrived at restaurants, there would be a long wait for a table. "Juse tell the maitre'd who we are," his wife would say. (In his pr-mustache days , he was rarely recognized in public.) Groucho would say, "Oh Ok. Good evening, sir. My name is Jones, This is Ms .Jones, and here are all the little jonesses." Now his wife woulf be furious and insisted that he tell the maitre'd the truth. "Oh, all right," said Groucho. "My name is Mr. Smith, This is Mrs. Smith and here are all the little Smiths."
Similar anecdotes were corroborated by Groucho's friends, not one of whom went without being publicly embarrassed by Groucho on at least one occasion. Once, at a restaurant (the most common location of Groucho's antics) a fan came up to him and said "Excuse me, but arent you Groucho Marx? "Yes.", Groucho answered annoyingly. "Oh, I'm your biggest fan! Could I ask you a favor? the man ask "Sure, What Is It?" asked the even more annoyingly Groucho "See my wife sitting over there?" She's even a bigger fan of yours than I am! would you be willing to insult her? Groucho replied: "Sir, if my wife looked like that, I wouldn't need any help thinking of Insults!"
Groucho was not allowed to join an informal symphonietta of friends, organized by Ben Hecht, thaat includes Harpo because he can only play the mandolin, When the group its first rehersal at Hecht's home, Groucho rushed in and demanded silence from the "Lousy amateurs". The Muscians discovered him conducting the Los Angeles Symphony Orchestra, playing Tanhauser in Hecht's living room. Groucho was allowed to join the symphonietta.
Groucho Marx's son Arthur published a brief account of an incident that occurred when Arthur was a child. The family was going through customs and, while filing out a form, Groucho listed his name as "Julius Henry Marx" and his occupation as a "smuggler". Thereafter, chaos ensued.
Later in Life, Groucho would sometimes note to talk-show hosts, not entirely joking, that he was unable to actually insult anyone, because the target of his comments assumed it was a "Groucho-esque" joke and would laugh.
Despite his lack of former education, he wrote many books, including his autobiography, Groucho and Me (1959) and Memories of a Mangy Lover (1963). He was personally friends with such literary figures such as: T. S. Elliot and Carl Sandburg. Much of his personal correspondence with those and other figures is featured in the book The Groucho Letters (1967) with an introduction and commentary on the letters written by Groucho, who donated his letters to the Library of Congress.
Irving Berlin quipped, "The world would not be such a bad place, had Marx been Groucho instead of Karl, In his book The Groucho Phile, Marx says: "I've been a liberal Democrat all my life", and "I frankly find Democrats a better, more sympathetic crowd.... I'll continue to believe that Democrats have a greater regard for the common man thanRepublicans do." Marx & Lennon: The Parallel Sayings was published in 2005; the books records similar sayings between Groucho Marx and John Lennon.
You Bet Your LifeEdit
Groucho's radio file was not successful as his life on stage and in film, such as Gerald Nachman and Mivhael Barson suggest that, in the case of the single-season Flywheel, Shyster, and Flywheel (1932). the failure may have been a combination of a poor time slot and the Marx Brothers' return to Hollywood to make another film.
In the mid-1940s, during a depressing lull in his career (his radio show Blue Ribbon Town had failed, and the Marx Brothers as film performers were well past their prime), Groucho was scheduled to appear on a radio show with Bob Hope. Annoed that he was maid to wait in the waiting room for 40 minutes, Groucho went on the air in a foul mood.
Hope started by asking "Why, it's Groucho Marx, ladies and gentleman (applause) Grouch, what brings you here from the hot desert? Groucho retorted, "Hot desert my foot, I've been standing here in the cold waiting room for 40 minutes!" Groucho to continued ignoring the script and although Hope was a former ad-libber in his own right, he could not begin to keep up with Grouchom who lenthened the scene well beyond it's allotted time slot with a vertible onslaught of improvised wisecracks.
Listening in on the show was produced by John Guedel, who got a brainstorm. He approached Groucho about doing a quiz show to which Griucho eretorted "A quiz show?" Only actors who are completely washed up resort to a quiz show!" Undetered, Guedel explained that the quiz would be only a fir Groucho's interview with people, and the strom of ad-libbing that they would elict. Groucho said. "Well. I have no success in radio, and I can't hold on to a sponsor. At this point, I'll try again!"
You Bet Your Life debuted in 1947 on Radio on ABC (From 1947 to 1949), sponsor by costume jewelry manufacturer Allen Gellman; and then on CNS (From 1949 to 1950) and finally NBC continuing until May 1961 on radio only, on both radio and television , 1950 to 1960. and on television only, 1960 -1961. The show proved a huge hit, being one of the most popular on the television in the mid-1950s. With George Frenneman, as his annuncer and straightman, Groucho entertained his audiences with improvised conversations with his guests. Since You Bet Your Life was mostly ad-libbed and unscripted, although writers did pre-interview the guests and feed Groucho's ready-made lines in advance, the producers insisted to have the network prerecord it (instead of being broadcast live). There were two reasons for this: Prerecording provided by Groucho with time to fish around for funny exchanges and any interening dead spots to be edit out; and secondly to protetct th network, Since groucho was a notorious loose cannon and know to say almost anything. The television show ran for 11 successful season, but it was canceled in 1961. Automobile marque DeSoto was a long-time major sponsor ads Marx whould sometimes say: "Tell'em Groucho sent ya" or "Try a DeSoto before you decide".
The program's theme music was an instrumental version of "Hooray For Captain Spaulding", which became increasingly identified as Groucho's personal theme song. A recording of the song with Groucho and the Ken Lang singers with an orchestra directed by Victor Young was released in 1952. Another recording made by Groucho diring this period was "The Funniest Song in the World", released on the Young People's Record label in 1949. It was a series of five original children's songs with a connecting narrative about a monkey and his fellow zoo creatures.
By the time You Bet Your Life debuted on October 5, 1950, Groucho had grown a real mustache (which he already sported earlier in the films Copacabana and Love Happy).
During a tour in Germany in 1958, accompanied by then-wife Eden, daughter Melinda, Robert Dwan and Dwan's daughter Judith, he climbed a pile of rubble that marked the site of Adolph Hitler's bunker, the site of Hitler's death, and performed a two-minute Charleston. He later remarked to Richard J. Anobile in The Marx Brothers Scrapbook, "Not much satisfaction after he killed six million jews!"
In 1960, Groucho, a lifelong devotee of the comic opera of Gilbert and Sullivan, appeared as Koko the Lord High Executioner in a televised production of The Mikado on NBC's Bell Telephone Hour. A clip of this is in rotation on Classic Arts Showcase.
Another TV show, Tell it to Groucho, premiered January 11, 1962 on CBS, but it only lasted five months. On October 1, 1962, after acting as occasional guest host of The Tonight Show during the six-month interval between Jack Paar and Johnny Carson, introduced Carson as the new host. In 1965, a weekly show for British TV titled Groucho was poorly received and only lasted 11 weeks.
In 1964, Marx starred in the "Time for Elizabeth" episode of Bob Hope Presents the Chrysler Theatre, a truncated version of a play that Groucho Marx and Norman Krasna wrote in 1948.
Groucho appeared as a gangster named God in the movie Skidoo (1968), directed by Otto Preminger, and co-starring Jackie Gleason and Carol Channing. It was released by the studio where the Marx Brothers begin their film career, Paramount Pictures. The film received almost negative reviews. As a side note , writed Paul Krassner published a story in the February 1981 issue of High Times, relating how Groucho prepared for the LSD-themed movie by taking a dose of the drug in Krassner's company, and had a moving, largely pleasant experience. Four years later came Groucho's last theatrical film appearance, a brief, uncredited cameo appearance in Michael Ritchie's The Candidate (1972).
In the early 1970s, largely at the behest of companion Erin Fleming, Groucho had a live one-man show, including one recording at Carnegie Hall in 1972 and released as a double album, An Evening with Groucho; on A&M Records. He also made an appearance in 1973 on a short-lived variety show hosted by Bill Cosby, who idolized Groucho.
Groucho developed friendships with Alice Cooper - the two were photographed together for Rolling Stones magazine - and television host Dick Cavett, becoming a frequent guest on Cavett's late-night talk show. He befriended Elton John when the British singer was staying in California in 1972, insisting on calling him "John Elton". according to writer Philip Norman, when Groucho jokingly pointed an index finger as if holding a pair of six-shooters, Elton John put up his hands and said "Don't shoot me, I'm only the piano player", thereby naming the album he had just completed. A film poster for the Marx Bros. movie Go West is visible on the album cover photograph as homage to Groucho. Elton John accompanied Groucho to a performance of Jesus Christ Superstar. As the lights went down, Groucho called out, "Does it Have a happy ending?" and during the Crucification scene, he declared, "This is sure to offend the Jews".
Groucho's previous work regained popularity and were accompanied by new books of transcribed conversations by Richard J. Anobile and Charlotte Chandler. In a BBC interview in 1975, Groucho called his greatest achievement having a book selected for cultural presentation in the American Library of Congress. As a man who had never had formal schooling, to have his writing declared to be cultural important was a point of satisfaction. As he passed his 81st birthday in October 1971, however, Groucho became incresingly frail physically and mentally as a result of several minor strokes he suffered. Controversy surrounded the companionship he had developed with Erin Fleming, which consequently raised disputes over his estate.
Jack Lemmon presented Groucho with an honorary Academy Award in 1974, his final major public apperance, in which he received a standing ovation. Noticeably frail and sluggish, Groucho took a bow for his deceased brothers, saying, "I wish that Harpo and Chico could be here to share with me this great honor". He also wished that Margaret Dumont cpuld have been present, adding that she was a great straight woman for him and that she never understood any of his jokes. Groucho's final appearance was a brief sketch with George Burns and Bob Hope television special Joys in 1976.
His health was noticeably worsening by the following year and when Gummo died, aged 84, on April 21, 1977, In Palm Springs, California, the death of his younger brother wasn ot reported to Groucho because it was thought too detrimental to his health.
Groucho maintained his impressible series of humor to the very end, however. According to Dick Cavett's New York Times blog, when the elderly Groucho visited an old friend in the hospital, he said to the elevator attendant, as if in a department store, "Men's tonsils, please". When Groucho himself was on his deathbed, and a nurse came around with a thermometer, explaining that she wanted to see if he had a temperature, he responded, "Don't be silly - everybody has a temperature." George Frenneman, his radio and TV announcer, good-nature foil and lifelong friend, often related a story in subsequent years of one oof his final visits to Groucho's home: When the time came to end the visit Fenneman lifted Groucho from his wheelchair, puts his arm around his torso, and began to "walk" the frail comedian backwards across the room towards his bed. As he did, he heard a weak voice in his ear: "Fenneman," whispered Groucho, "You always were a lousy dancer."
Marx's Children, particularly his son Arthur, felt strongly that Fleming was pushing their weak father beyond his physical and mental limits. writer Mark Evanier concurred. Fleming's influence on Marx was controversial. Many close to him believed that she did much to revive his popularity. Also, some observers felt the apparent relationship with young starlet boosted Groucho's ego, adding to his vitality. Others described her as a Svengali, exploiting an increasingly senile Marx in pursuit of her own stardom while reportedly behaving erratically and violently, suggesting metal instability. Marx was hospitalized for pneumonia on June 22, 1977 and died on August 19 at Cedars Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles. Fleming, increasingly mentally unstable through the years, committed suicide in 2003.
He was cremated and the ashes were interred in the Eden Memorial Park Cemetary in Los Angeles. Groucho had the longest lifespan of all the Marx Brothers and was survived only by younger brother Zeppo, who outlived him by two years. His death is somewhat overshadowed by the death of Elvis Presley, which occurred three days earlier. In an interview, he jokingly suggested his epitaph read: "Excuse me, I can't stand up" His mausoleum marker bears only his stage name, a Star of David, and the years of his birth and death.
Groucho Marx was. and is, the most recognizable and well-known of the Marx Brothers. Groucho-like characters and references have appeared in popular culture both during and after his life, some aimed at audiences who may never have seen a Marx Brothers movie. Groucho's trademark eyeglasses, nose, mustache and cigar have become icons of comedy - glassed with the fake noses and mustache (referred to as "Groucho glasses", "nose-glasses", and other names) are sold by novelty and costume shops around the world.
Nat Perrin, close friend of Groucho Marx and writer of several Marx Brothers films, inspired John Astin's portrayal of Gomez Addams on the 1960s TV series The Addams Family with similarly thick mustache, eyebrows, sardonic remarks, backwards logic and ever-present cigar (pulled from his breast pocket already lit).
Alan Alda often vamped in the manner of Groucho on M*A*S*H. In one episode; Yankee Doodle Doctor, Hawkeye and Trapper put on a Marx Brothers act at the 4077, with Hawkeye playing Groucho and Trapper playing Harpo. In three other episodes, a character who appeared who was named Captain Calvin Spalding (played by loudon Wainwright III). Groucho's character in Animal Crackers was Captain Geoffrey T. Spaulding.
On many occasions, on the 1970s television sitcom All in the Family, Michael Stivic (Rob Reiner), would briefly imitate Groucho Marx and his mannerisms.
Two albums by British rock band Queen, A Night at the Opera (1975) and A Day at the Races (1976) are named after Marx Brothers films. In March 1977, Groucho invited Queen to visit him in his Los Angeles home; there they performed "39" a capella. A long-running ad campaign for Vlasic pickles featured an animated stork that imitates Groucho's mannerisms and voice. On the famous Hollywood Sign in California, one of the "O"s is dedicated to Groucho. Alice Cooper contributed over $27,000 to remodel the sign, in memory of his friend.
In 1982, Gabe Kaplan portrayed Marx in the film Groucho, in a one-man stage production. He also imitated Marx occasionally on his previous sitcom Welcome Back, Kotter.
Actor Frank Ferrante has performed as Groucho Marx on stage for more than two decades. He continues to tour under rights granted by the Marx family in a one-man show entitled An Evening With Groucho in theaters throughout the United States and Canada with piano accompanist Jim Furmston. In the late 1980s Ferramte starred as Groucho in the off-Broadway and London show Groucho: A Life in Revue penned by Groucho's son Arthur. Ferrante portrayed the comedian from age 15 to 85. The show was later filmed for PBS in 2001. Woody Allen's 1996 musical Everyone Says I love You, in addition to being named for one of Groucho's signature songs, ends with a Groucho-themed New Year's Eve party in Paris, which some of the stars, including Allen and Goldie Hawn, attend in full Groucho costume. The highlight of the scene is an ensemble song-and-dance performance of "Hooray for Captain Spaulding" - done entirely in French.
In the last of the Tintin comics, Tintin and the Picaros, a balloon shaped like the face of Groucho could be seen in the Annual Carnival.
In the Italian horror comic Dylan Dog, the protagonist's sidekick is a Groucho impersonator whose character became his permanent personality.
The BBC remade sitcom Flywheel, Shyster, and Flywheel, with contemporary actors playing the part of the original cast. The series was repeated on digital radio station BBC7. Scottish playwright Louise Oliver wrote a play named Waiting For Groucho about Chico and Harpo waiting for Groucho to turn up for the filming of their last project together. This was performed by Glasgow theatre company Rhymes with Purple Productions at the Edinburgh Fringe and in Glasgow and Hamilton in 2007-08. Groucho was played by Scottish actor Frodo McDaniel.